Since the industrial evolution in 18th to 19th century, building materials have changed a lot regarding material application, material expression and so on. To achieve architectural purposes, buildings have been transformed under great influences from the material technology and material aesthetic changes. Recently, I studied some of the church design on the perspective of material transformation and expression, I found it is interesting to see how materials can play a big role in church design on the purpose of expressing and creating different sacred spaces for communities. For instances, one of the national historical landmarks, Trinity Church in Boston designed by H. H. Richardson informs us a Victorian style, which is Romanesque façade. Also he tended to create a civic value and change social behavior by building new types of spaces in public buildings, such as this library. Different type of stones were applied and used for the design, rusticated rock, stone arches and wrought iron for windows as ornamentation. The main building materials are Monson granite and Longmeadow sandstones; also most of the supporting piles were made of wood.
Traditional materials can express the influences done by history and conventional social values in some senses. However, some of the modern churches in the beginning of 20th century, such as the Unity Temple designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, it Unitarian Universalist church that is considered as the first modern building in the world. The only material it uses is reinforced concrete. Before getting into architecture, I never thought a concrete wall could be as attractive as variable stones that are with colors. However, seeing these comparisons between different churches, what I am trying to say is that as we are manipulating new materials technologies into modern design, mostly our aesthetic evaluation can be changed.